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Theories of motivation

What is motivation?

Motivation refers to the process by which a person’s efforts are energized, directed and sustained toward attaining a goal. Motivation is the only thing through which an organization can get the work and efforts from employee for benefits. It is means the work of an employee somehow depends on organization’s motivation.

Social needs

Everyone needs love, relationships, acceptance and friendship. 4. i. Esteem needs: Esteem needs are divided into two types or categories that are; Internal esteem needs: Self-respect, independence and achievements lies in this category. Ii. 5. External esteem needs: Status, identification, respect and attention lies in this category. Self actualization needs: Person’s needs for growth, achieving one’s potential and self fulfillment

Theories of motivation

Theories of motivation

These theories represent the current explanation of employees’ motivation. We can say that these are modern employee motivational theories. These are totally different from early theories. → Goal Contemporary theories of motivation includes following theories; 1.2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Designing Motivating Jobs(Job designing theories) Equity Theory Expectancy Theory High involvement work practices

Goal setting

goal setting | life goal | arrow

Theory: Setting a goal is much necessary in life for everyone because goals increase performance, goals encourage us, if we have a goal we will do our best to achieve it. It means we will put our full efforts for its achievements and we will also be able to know our own skills that what skills we have.

Important Notes :

Goals are source of job motivation. If goal is harder than the workers will work harder and the output will also higher. Difficult goals will lead to higher performance if they were accepted. Employees try harder if they have the opportunity to participate in the setting of goals of their organization or company. Feedback: Self If people get feedback they will do more better. Efficacy :It refers to individual’s belief that he or she can do.

  1. • Reinforcement theory:
  2. This theory is about behavior. It says that behavior depends on its consequences or outcomes. If consequences are same the same behavior will be repeated and the consequences called re Managers can use re—enforcers enforcement . theory by behaving positively with their employees and workers to achieve their targeted goals. These positive enforcers have a great role in influencing the employees. And managers should ignore undesirable behavior of their employees for employees’ motivation to achieve the goal.

3. Designing motivating jobs (job design theory) Proposed to identify the best method to perform the job.The breaking down of job into tasks and then tasks into simplest components in assigning them to employees so that each person would perform one or a few specifics tasks in a repetitive manners, it results into some negative outcomes that are; • • • • Poor motivation Boring and repetitive Increase absenteeism So instead of this we can do that are little bit more motivational for employees, like; Job enlargement: Expand the tasks performed by the employees to add more variety Job enrichment: Give workers or employees more control over how they perform their own tasks. • It will increase the power of decision making in employees. → • Job characteristics model (JCM):It identifies job characteristics and their relationship with individual’s personal and work outcomes. • • There are five characteristics that identifies this relationship. It identifies that employee’s job lies in which degree and how much he is satisfied with his job. It also defines how job can be designed. How blind faith work and what is the meaning of absent treatment ?

CONTINUE: Characteristics: • • Skill variety: Task identity:– The degree to which the job requires the person to use multiple (high level) tasks. The degree to which the employee in charge of completing an identifiable piece of work from start to finish. • • Tasks significance: The degree to which the employee’s job significantly affect others work, health or well Autonomy:– being. The degree to which the person has the freedom to decide that how to perform the tasks. • Feedback: The degree to which the person learns how good he is doing his work.

  1. • Equity theory: Proposed by • J.StaceyAdam’s. He said that employees compares the input and outcomes in an organization or company. • • • Inputs:The work they have done for organization or company. Outcomes:company. The result or rewards they get from organization or If the ratio of inputs and outcomes is equal then they compare their ratio with the other relevants . If the both ratios are equal then there will be no problem but if there is an inequality it will results into change in productivity, change in quality of products or outputs, increased absenteeism or resignation.

CONTINUE: → The ratio can be compared as; • • • → • Outcomes A : Inputs A < Outcomes B : Inputs B = Inequity(under rewarded) Outcomes A : Inputs A = Outcomes B : Inputs B = equity Outcomes A : Inputs A > Outcomes B : Inputs B rewarded) Person A is employee and B is referent. Referent≔ Inequity(over—It shows how an employee compare himself to others. It is categorized into three parts that are person, system and self. • • • • • Person:Employee compare his pay with other neighbors who are at same designation or job. System:relevants , friends or It means the policy of organization or company Self:In this employee compares his own inputs and outcomes. Distributive justice: Procedural justice:– Fairness of amount and distribution of rewards. Fairness of process used to determine the allocation or distribution of rewards.

  1. • Expectancy theory: Developed by Victor • Vroon .This theory tries to explain how and why people choose the particular over an alternative. → The theory suggests that motivation depends on two things that are; • • • • How much an individual desire particular goal. And how likely he things he can get it. It shows the behavioral process of, why individual choose one behavioral option over the others. This theory explains that employee can be motivated towards goals if they believe that there is a positive relation between efforts and performances, the outcome of a favorable performance will results into a desirable reward, a reward from a performance will satisfy an important need, and the outcome satisfies their needs enough to make the efforts worthwhile.

CONTINUE: Expectancy theory has three components; Expectancy:Effort Instrumentality: Rrefers to an employee’s belief that the effort will results in higher performance Instrumentalit.It is the belief that an employee will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met. This reward may be in the form of pay increase, promotion etc. Valence .It is an importance or value, an individual places on rewards of an outcome. Motivating in tough economic circumstances Managing crosscultural motivational challenges Motivating unique groups of workers Design appropriate rewards programs

Motivating in tough economic circumstances:Problems: • • Layoffs Tight budget • • Minimal or no pay raises Benefit cuts → No bonuses → Long working hours Worse condition: •Employee confidence, optimism and job engagement decrease rapidly. • • • • • • What managers should do? Holding meetings with employees Establishing a common goal Creating a community feel Giving employees opportunities to learn and grow Even a smile can make a big difference

• Managing crosschallenges:cultural motivational Today’s global business environment • • • • Motivational programs that work in one geographical location may not work in others The desire for interesting work seems important to all workers Maslow’s need hierarchy theory do not work for all cultures Herzberg’s motivator (intrinsic) factor may be universal

• Motivating unique groups of workers:Motivating is not easy. • Every employee come in organization with different needs, abilities, personality, skills and interests. Motivating a diverse work force: •– It requires managers to think in term of flexibility. Lifestyle (e.g. single parenthood) is an important factor. A compressed workweek:A work week where employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week. Flexible work hours (flex time):A schedule system in which employees are required to work a number of hours a week, but are free, with limits, to vary the hours of work. Job sharing: time job.

CONTINUE: Telecommuting:it is a job approach where employees work at house and are linked to the work place by computer and modem. → • Advantages of Telecommuting:Decrease in the time and stress of commuting and an increase in flexibility to cope with family demands. → • Drawbacks of Telecommuting: Lack of social contract • • Rewards systemSeparation of organizational work and home work

CONTINUE: Motivating professionals: → • Professional’s characteristics: Strong and long—term commitment to their field of expertize • • • → • • • Loyalty is to their profession, not to the employer Regularly update their knowledge Briefly define their work week week as 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM, five days per Motivating programs for professionals: Job challenge Organizational support of their work Work itself

CONTINUE: Motivating contingent workers: •Contingent employees refers to temporary employees • • Contingent workers were not treated as permanent workers treated Managers might use the opportunity for permanent status, opportunity for training and equitable treatment to motivate contingent workers

CONTINUE: Motivating low employees:•skilled, minimum wage To motivate minimum wage employees, managers should use; • • • • Recognition programs Sincere appreciation Power of praise Pats on the back

• Designing appropriate rewards programs:Employee reward program is a powerful tool in motivating an employee. → • • • • → • Open book management:Organization involve employees in workplace decision Open up financial statement in front of employees to motivate them to make better decisions Goal is to get employees to think like an owner by seeing the result their decision have own financial results For effectiveness, employees must be taught the fundamentals of financial statement analysis Employee recognition program:Consists of personal attention and expressing interest and appreciation for a job well done.

CONTINUE: → • What should manager do? Manager can personally congratulate or appreciate an employee privately for a good job • → Manager can also recognize the achievements of employees publically Pay for performance program in different countries: •90% of employees have same form of pay plan • • • 30% Canadian companies and 22% Japanese companies have pay for performance plan Do pay for performance work:The jury is still out, other studies show that companies that use pay for performance program perform better financially than those did not use that program.

Ghulam Mustafa

I am teacher, trainer blogger and freelancer Specific field, research paper work

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